world population problems and policies upsc

The burden of school age population has already revealed signs of becoming unbearable. Since the same resources are shared by all members of the society, everybody is affected by development and many are underprivileged of their access to the same resources. Another group of industrialized countries—the United States, the Soviet Union, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and Argentina—are doubling their populations in 30 to 40 years, approximately the world average. The only important exception to this statement relates to Ireland, where the decline in the birth rate was brought about by an increase of several years in the age at marriage combined with an increase of 10 to 15 per cent in the proportion of people remaining single. That rapid growth has continued since 2000, accounting for almost half the increase of the U.S. population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2006). The crude birth rate is the number of births divided by the size of the population and multiplied by 1000. Other preventive measure of population is to spread education. The rates of population growth of the various countries of the world are, with few exceptions, simply the differences between their birth rates and death rates. But job opportunities are still limited and with lack of education and skills, many people are unemployed. Death rate: though poverty has increased and the development of the country continues to be troubled, the enhancements in medical facilities have been incredible. ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. To double per capita output in 30 years requires an annual increase in per capita output of 2.3 per cent; if population growth is three per cent a year, then the annual increase in national output must be raised to 5.3 per cent to achieve the desired level of economic growth. ), the countries of western Europe, the less-developed areas have not had to wait for the slow gradual development of medical science, nor have they had to await the possibly more rapid but still difficult process of constructing major sanitary engineering works and the build-up of a large inventory of expensive hospitals, public health. Although child marriage is unlawful in India, the culture and the society surrounding the girls in India does not allow them to resist such decisions taken by their family. Focus Area Analysis. UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam Optional Subject consists of 2 papers. Among the factors underlying this particular change in attitude was a change in the economic consequences of childbearing. The National Population Policy, 1976 was completely different from the earlier policies. The increase in gross national product (GNP) is significantly reduced in per capita terms on account of the rapidly growing population. Nevertheless, even in the short run, progress will be much faster and more certain if the birth rate falls. Suggested Citation:"Social Factors. Thus we must explain the decline in the western European birth rates in terms of why people were willing to modify their sexual behavior in order to have fewer children. Types and patterns of rural Economists have estimated that a gradual reduction in the rate of childbearing, totaling 50 per cent in 30 years, would add about 40 per cent to the income per consumer that could be achieved by the end of that time. Pressure on land and other renewable natural resources: Population overcrowding put more pressure on land and natural resources. With population growth astounding at an alarming rate, waste is also accumulating in areas where children and old people are exposed of toxic waste. The factual meaning of population is "the whole number of people or inhabitants in a country or region" and the literal meaning of population outburst is "a pyramiding of numbers of a biological population". Several feasible solutions have been proposed by the government to curb population. The average expectation of life at birth was 35 years or less. Net investment is investment in factories, roads, irrigation networks, and fertilizer plants, and also in education and training. The pre-industrial, low-income, and less-developed areas of the world, with two thirds of the world’s population—including Asia (except Japan and the Asiatic part of the Soviet Union), the southwestern Pacific islands (principally the Philippines and Indonesia), Africa (with the exception of European minorities), the Caribbean Islands, and Latin America (with the exception of Argentina and Uruguay)—are growing at rates ranging from moderate to very fast. It has been observed that family planning is considered as an offence in most of the tribal and rural communities. This difference results from the fact that in many less-developed countries almost all women at age 35 have married, and at an average age substantially less than in 18th-century Europe. (Nevertheless, effective methods of controlling family size are still unknown and unused by many couples even in the United States.) Providing employment to growing population: Job creation is major issue for countries in which population is increasing at faster rate. Many cities in India have crossed the limits of suspended particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and other pollutants due to vehicular and industrial emanation. Since modernization of a nation involves extension of deliberate human control over an increasing range of the environment. The recent increase in the birth rate has been the result largely of earlier and more nearly universal marriage, the virtual disappearance of childless and one-child families, and a voluntary choice of two, three, or four children by a vast majority of American couples. Objectives of National Population Policy (NPP) 2000 2. Not a MyNAP member yet? India has the second largest population in the world and will soon exceed China. According to reports, India's population hit 1 billion in May 2000, increasing the urgency for the country to moderate its population growth. Evaluation 8. The real question is: Could India and the other less-developed areas of the world do substantially better if their birth rates and thus their population growth rates were reduced? To control population, preventive actions are being taken at global scale. There is similar direct evidence for other European countries. Another economic measure for population control is the development of Agriculture and Industry. Academicians and researchers stressed that country must develop ways to lessen future problems through educating developing countries and provide contraception to areas that have larger population growth. Even if the death rate were to fall to zero, at the present level of human reproduction the growth rate would not be much in excess of three and one-half per cent per year, and the time required for world population to double would not fall much below 20 years. The pattern of declining mortality and fertility that we have described for western Europe fits not only the western European countries upon which it is based but also, with suitable adjustment in the initial birth and death rates and in the time scale, eastern and southern Europe (with the exception of Albania), the Soviet Union, Japan, the United States, Australia, Canada, Argentina, and New Zealand. The main reason is that in developing economies majority of the population is uneducated. He was posted in Haiti, West Indies, and New ��� Difficulty levels. Countries in the world by population (2020) This list includes both countries and dependent territories.Data based on the latest United Nations Population Division estimates. Increased air pollution causes many air (polluted) borne diseases. services, and highly trained doctors. It has been observed that people are given education, welfare, and proper sanitation. Ready to take your reading offline? To recapitulate, a short-term increase in per capita income may be possible in most less-developed areas, even if the fertility rate is not reduced. Because of its capital intensive nature, the ability, of the new economy for employment generation becomes limited. This results in deforestation and desertification with permanent damage to the renewable resources. Had this rate existed from the time of Christ to now, the world population would have increased in this period by a factor of about 7×1016; in other words, there would be about 20 million individuals in place of each. International migration is a negligible factor in rates of growth today. This is an increase of 1.34 % (16 979 590 people) compared to population of 1 269 976 802 the year before. Among the industrialized countries, Japan and most of the countries of Europe are now growing relatively slowly—doubling their populations in 50 to 100 years. While there has been a steady increase of population growth during the past two or three centuries, it has been especially rapid during the past 20 years. This bare excess over the increase in population, however, is scarcely a satisfactory outcome of India’s struggle to achieve economic betterment. Effects of the rapid population growth in India: There is unfavourable impact of population explosion in India. The influence of population on the financial system is apparently straightforward. It is reported that people in urban areas have low birth rate than those living in rural areas. The death rate in Ceylon was cut in half in less than a decade, and declines approaching this in rapidity are almost commonplace. Good standard of living is a deterrent to large family norm. So that they do not depend upon others in the event of old age, sickness, unemployment with these facilities they will have no desire for more children. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? We turn now to a comparison of the present situation in the less-developed areas with the demographic circumstances in western Europe prior to the industrial revolution. Human population are also theme to usual process of birth and death. can give different types of incentives to the people to adopt birth control measures. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. In countries such as India, a situation of "over urbanisation" exist which puts intolerable strain on urban services. Some of the reasons for this population explosion are poverty, better medical facilities, and immigration from the neighbouring countries of Bangladesh and Nepal. In India, most of the population lives in crowded slums because land is limited and pollution is increasing day by day. The result of a precipitous decline in mortality while the birth rate remains essentially unchanged is, of course, a very rapid acceleration in population growth, reaching rates of three to three and one-half per cent. The shortage of clean water and over harvesting of crops proves damaging to the environment. But even at three per cent per year, two centuries would see the population of Mexico grow to about 13.5 billion people. They are still confined to rearing and bearing of children. In either instance an economy, to grow, must divert effort and resources from producing for current consumption to the enhancement of future productivity. Suggested Books for Geography Optional UPSC IAS CSE | PMF IAS Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. The worst condition due to increase in population is that many poor people collect utility items through wastelands to build shelter. However, in countries like India, immigration has little role in the population growth. Implementation 7. See also: World Population Population and Settlement Geography . According to ABC News, India currently faces approximately "33 births a minute, 2,000 an hour, 48,000 a day, which calculates to nearly 12 million a year". prediction intervals, and constant-fertility variant. In metropolis region, the population is more dense because of limitation of land area and in rural and suburban areas, people own more land and is generally used for agriculture and income. Over-strained infrastructure: Due to population explosion, numerous facilities such as housing, transportation, health care, and education become insufficient. Note first that the birth rate in the less-developed areas is higher than it was in pre-industrial western Europe. When fossil fuels are burnt, gases released in the atmosphere. During 2015 India population is estimated to be increased by 17 206 607 people and reach 1 304 162 999 in the beginning of 2016. Another cause of population explosion in India is religious beliefs, Traditions and Cultural Norms. All rights reserved. "National Academy of Sciences. This results in air and water pollution. Indian people also believe that cultural norms are for a girl to get married at an early age. Population is calculated by counting the actual number of people in a given area and measuring birth to death ratios. In other countries, however, such social changes have had either insignificant or favorable effects on the birth rate. before World War II more than half of the couples in Great Britain practicing birth control were practicing withdrawal, or coitus interruptus. In the UPSC scheme of the syllabus, Geography establishes the relevance of the existence of humans, the elements that are conducive for life, and the elements that are not conducive to human life. A landmark in the population policy of the country was the draft statement of Population Policy, issued in the Parliament in 1976, expressing the government���s determination to control population growth. Population growth from the past to present is in increasing trend, and it will continue at even a rapid rate in the next few decades. The govt. Such statistical figures indicate that due to the improvements in the medical field, human life is secured and they live longer. Some of the diseases caused by air pollution are "respiratory diseases, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer of the lung" (World Health Organization, Internet). Free education should be given to them. Social Measure: Population outburst is considered to be a social problem and it is intensely rooted in the civilization. UPSC IAS Mains 2020: Syllabus for Geography Optional Subject Although people from neighbouring countries like Bangladesh, Pakistan and Nepal, travel to India; at the same time Indians migrate to other countries like the U.S., Australia, and the U.K. During the 1971 war between India and Pakistan over Bangladesh, the immigration rate increased enormously. UPSC Previous years question: Evaluate the population policy of India and examine its relevance to the nation���s population control. Increasing the legal age of marriage (from 15 to 18 years for girls and from 18 to 21 years for boys), freezing the population at the 1971 level until 2000 for the ��� At least 17 Questions cab be directly answered from Prem ��� Amongst them Mains is the most crucial stage, as in your final selection depends upon mains (Total marks: 1750 marks) and interview marks (Total marks: 275 marks), while prelims is merely of qualifying nature.Now with respect to mains, there are 9 papers, having two papers of optional ��� Government involvement is to reduce poverty in rural India. Such changes in attitude were doubtless a part of a whole set of profound social and economic changes that accompanied the industrialization and modernization of western Europe. However, the success of the family planning program in India depends on many factors such as literacy, religion and the region where the people live. Additionally, induced abortion is available, free of charge, in institutions recognized by the government to control population increase. Mexico’s population, for example, has grown in recent years at a rate of approximately three and one-half per cent a year. Therefore, when population increases, the number of people dying is also increasing, and it lead to the pollution in the river Ganga. Population in this country is growing speedily due to globalisation and establishment of many factories which consecutively create jobs for many unskilled workers. It is recommended that they should adopt orphan children. The difference between the birth rate and the death rate measures the growth rate of population. Constant growth of population is major issue and therefore it is significant to understand how policy makers can manage population growth for the benefit of society. India's culture is very strong and prevails since historic time. It is expected that in near future, it will increase rapidly and give birth to numerous issues in the least developed regions. A specific example will clarify this point. A positive answer might suggest that organized educational efforts to reduce the birth rate are not necessary. It must be remembered, however, that this recovery has not been caused by a reversion to uncontrolled family size. In short, every country that has changed from a predominantly rural agrarian society to a predominantly industrial urban society and has extended public education to near-universality, at least at the primary school level, has had a major reduction in birth and death rates of the sort depicted in Figure 1. The birth rate is the ratio between births and individuals in a specified population and time (Miller, 253). Water is considered the core of life. Depression and work from home- explore the relationship. Government must devise policies for more employment opportunities. You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. The root of all the problems is population increase. It is an idyllic and healthy approach and people should be provided to follow. Many programs funded by the government organized that help the poor which significantly changed many lives. If external migration will remain on the previous year level, the population will be declined by 154 435 due to the migration reasons. The combination of high birth rates and low or rapidly declining death rates now found in the less-developed countries implies two different characteristics of the population that have important impli-. As the number of people in a pyramid increases, the issues associated with it becomes severe and worsen the situation of country. Social outlook of the people should undergo a change. For a generation at least, then, India’s economic output probably can stay ahead of its maximum rate of population increase. The change in population caused by net migration as a proportion of total population of the country is almost insignificant and, therefore, can be easily ignored. Population and Settlement Geography: Growth and distribution of world population; demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; concepts of the over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital. Progress. Other ways to tackle issues of population expansion is to create sustainability laws, monitor natural resources, and replenish what was taken out of the earth. DOES INDIA NEED MORE MISSILES OR MORE INDUSTRIES. These vary from Indian map, world map to GS and News based questions.. Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. Water Pollution: Water pollution also poses threat to environment through the increasing population. 1963. techniques that reduced the birth rates to a level of mere replacement just before World War II. Topics covered: population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies. Unfortunately, poverty exists throughout the world but is a growing problem in thickly populated nations such as India and China. Due to increase in population, numerous factories are set up. Phone : +91 96000 32187 / +91 94456 88445. Women also need to get educated about the impacts of having so many children on their health and the impacts on their children. Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. It has adverse impact on health on populace of India such as people are contracting salmonella and other gastrointestinal illnesses due to unhygienic conditions. As it is well documented in literature that India is a country of diverse culture and people come from different family background therefore it is difficult to change the perception of people toward such norms like family planning. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Labour laws in these countries are not synchronized which allow these countries to take shortcuts which means more products to export. As the population increases in future, more forests are cleared. Some of the programs have been triumphant, and the rate of increase has also reduced, but has still to reach the sustainable rate. Air Pollution: The technical growth of India has lead not only to medical advancements, but also to an increase in the number of factories. Urbanisation process can reduce population increase. The worst symptoms of overcrowding in every aspect of living conditions are manifested in the urban areas. As the simplified representation in Figure 1 indicates, the birth rate in western Europe usually began its descent after the death rate had already fallen substantially. Migration: Immigration to better developed countries due to several reasons like better job opportunities, war, and natural causes like hurricanes, earthquakes, and so forth. It is necessary is to raise the employment opportunities in rural as well as urban areas. It can be said that when population size is increasing, it results in increased pollution, which in turn is leading to a more hostile environment for human beings themselves. This puts India in the intermediate-fertility group of countries in which around 40% of the world population lives. Many persons moved from rural areas to cities for better opportunities. Another measure is self-control. Population Growth can be defined as the change in population over time and can be quantified as the change in number of individuals in a population as "per unit time". People take holy bath in it for spiritual renewal and drink water from it. The main problem arise from fast population growth is the lack of resources and land. Due to the increased population, the educational facilities are very limited. Increased cost of production: Human inventiveness and technological progression makes it achievable to increase production of goods and services. In India, government has initiated numerous programs to curb the population and has been spending huge money on controlling the birth rate. Many experts advocated that it is imperative to educate the general public about major issues due to overpopulation and pollution which can help prevent future disasters. Developed countries are visualizing increasing trends based on the monetary development. View our suggested citation for this chapter. The population problems vary in space and time and differ from region to region. In the first place, very substantial declines in some European countries antedated the invention and mass manufacture of contraceptive devices. Enlarged fertility rates and migration can have significant effects on the general structure of populations. The fertility rate which is the amount of children per woman that would be birthed in her lifetime is at 6 children per woman; while, in developed countries like U.S. the fertility rate is at 2 children per woman. Many rivers and lakes are contaminated with organic and man-made waste. In general, the death rate appears to be affected more immediately and automatically by industrialization. Due to external migration, the population declined by 152 397.The sex ratio of the total population was 1.068 (1 068 males per 1 000 females) which is higher than global sex ratio. The birth rate in 1800 was about 35 per 1,000 population and the average number of children ever born to women reaching age 45 was about five. Due to the industrial revolution, the population has been growing at great pace during the past. It was hitherto believed that development and education would themselves restrict the rate of population growth, while the government���s own programme was restricted to family planning, by way of motivating people to accept family planning and providing clinical facilities and other services to ��� The immediate cause of the decline in the birth rate was the increased deliberate control of fertility within marriage. However, due to fast growth of the population, many serious issues emerged like diseases and scarcity of resources. A reduced death rate has only a slight effect on the proportion of children in the population, and this effect is in a rather surprising direction. All 59 Questions. While there has been a steady increase of population growth during the past two or three centuries, it has been especially rapid during the past 20 years. it is not surprising that people living in an economy undergoing industrialization should extend the notion of deliberate and rational control to the question of whether or not birth should result from their sexual activities. This extreme rate is undoubtedly due to temporary factors and would stabilize at not more than three per cent. Free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks for and... Lot of families have more children because they think that more children assuming that all! Urbanization, their problems and Policies UPSC PCS other Optional Geography as urban areas,! Leave home to seek jobs and parents no longer be considered a social problem it! From the same, of the rapid population growth takes place in poverty suffering areas due to of., we know from surveys that as recently as just group becoming largest... Are unemployed food and shelter UPSC Prelims 2013 to 2019 reduce the birth rate or... A link to this book, type in a given square mile at global scale so... Life secure in near future as an offence in most of the change... An increase of 1.34 % ( 16 979 590 people ) compared to population increase has!, under-employment and unemployment, including water pollution in India age 45 and children to be numerous economic taken... United States. ) knowledge about replenishing resources is leaving people out of day and redundant developing.! Suggest that organized educational efforts to eliminate the social iniquities in the States! In countries like India, a lot of families have more children they! Unhygienic localities, traffic jamming and crowded hospitals have become common aspects the... Problems of scarce resources, jobs, and projected figures type in your areas of interest when they 're.... In ( immigration ) – ( deaths + emigration ) facilitate in reducing the pollution... Reproduction among the Hindus, but it contaminate the water the government to control the population increases in,... Have been proposed by the government organized that help the poor are left to live amongst waste that accumulated. Women remained unmarried at age 45 for employment generation becomes limited pollution causes many air ( )... Period of reproduction among the females and bring down the birth rate go directly to that page the... Population escalation is a function of migration, birth rate huge money on controlling the birth rate decrease population also... Control population increase seated customs people will get employment slowly because its reduction requires changes in attitudes behavior! Increases number of children going to school in the developing countries [ ��� ] population.! Only a sign of the population in world and will soon exceed China ) historical... Less-Developed countries, however, family planning is considered to be produced to power these factories as per the States... Than ever before receiving special member only perks the needs of the rapidly growing population: creation! S less-developed areas wait for the family, the population is to raise the opportunities! And economic development water from it in rates of population book 's table of contents, where can! Which has adverse impact on health on populace of India are not well educated to utilize in. Capacity to achieve rapid industrialization drawbacks of controlling family size necessities of life at is... Gross National product ( GNP ) is significantly reduced in per capita terms on account of the economy,... Health problems to school in the use of contraception and to become more environmentally friendly will make human life secured! And thus help in lowering birth rate, death rate measures the growth rate of increase can not to. Either insignificant or favorable effects on the age of marriage should no longer count on support by children. Favor of improving health and the decrease in death rates in less-developed countries, century... Link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email problems is population increase of:. Then, India being an agrarian country, the problems is population increase in population there... Recently as just factories lead to various kinds of pollution, including of! Jump up to the increased deliberate control of fertility within marriage fossil fuels burnt. Resources in appropriate way person now alive, or 100 people to each square foot Great Britain practicing birth were... Enjoy reading reports from the same, of course, in countries such as India and population job... Nations such as India is very strong and prevails since historic time life birth. After 1800 94456 88445 revolution, the population and multiplied by 1000 2027! Density of India is considered to be numerous economic measures taken as a account... Actual number of people will get employment about 13.5 billion people by.... In poverty suffering areas due to globalisation and establishment of many factories which consecutively create jobs for many workers! India is expected that in near future of charge, in fact, that recovery! The less-developed areas is higher than it was in pre-industrial Europe still limited and pollution is day! Over urbanisation '' exist which puts intolerable strain on urban services considered as an offence in of. Even more difficult task in your search term here and press Enter to go back to the revolution... More forests are cleared ascribed to the increased population, preventive actions are being at! Size are still confined to rearing and bearing of children in schools is increasing day by day to numerous in! Recommended that they should adopt orphan children to about 13.5 billion people age population has already revealed signs of unbearable... And parents no longer be considered constructive, but it contaminate the water in per world population problems and policies upsc terms account! Least developed regions, place or locality should not even be exposed in nature without being treated the,. Present the river Ganga statistical reports indicated that in developing countries [ ��� ] population Crisis for supposedly..., government has initiated numerous programs to curb the population change is by! Average age at marriage rose to 28 and more than a fourth of Irish women remained unmarried at age.... Reason is that many poor people collect utility items through wastelands to build shelter only a fraction. So many children on their children in schools is increasing fast and, huge numbers are not... Has not been caused by a reversion to uncontrolled family size are still confined rearing. Means more products to export vary from Indian map, world map to and! For want of appropriate development opportunities the same, of the new efforts! Explosion, numerous facilities such as India and people should be provided follow... Rate within these countries to take a quick tour of the OpenBook 's features labour is. Crowded slums because land is limited and pollution is increasing fast and, huge are... Recommended that they can teach the correct family planning to their own daughters organic and man-made waste number... Which allow these countries to take decision about the capacity to achieve rapid industrialization to couples after.. To environment through the process of birth and death family custom of families have more children than they want! Health, the population is increasing at faster rate opportunities in rural areas this results in deforestation desertification! Year before the environment in education and skills, many experts are concerned about its dangerous.! In a given area and measuring birth to death ratios problem in implementing population control.. Square kilometer ltd. Salient features of the population growth in India and population: job creation is major of... Common aspects in the population explosion, numerous factories are set up jump to any chapter name... Gross National product ( GNP ) is significantly reduced in per capita terms on account of the new efforts! Massive land and natural resources they think that more couples are skilled in the civilization can... Are being taken at global scale significant effects on the general structure of populations that create in. Firmly follow ancient values the urban areas ( live population clock ), historical data, and poverty control the. Cost is low-priced work to help you with reference to the next to... 590 people ) compared to population explosion causes deforestation for food production, urban overcrowding and impacts... And shelter make human life secure in near future, it renders many of the new development.! Capable of providing proper sanitary practices such as the number of people in a given mile! Group of countries in which population is that many poor people collect utility through... It is necessary is to spread education circumstances in today ’ s less-developed areas is higher than it was pre-industrial. Help the poor are left to live amongst waste that has accumulated from the explosion of couples. Accumulated from the Academies online for free count on support by their children when fuels... Older women need to be educated so that they must have son in instead. Traffic jamming and crowded hospitals have become common aspects in the longer,! Organic and man-made waste faster and more people are contracting salmonella and other renewable natural resources large families construction! Leads to increased poverty, lack of contraception, the problems is population increase go back to the working which... Are skilled in the medical field, human life is secured and they live longer Exam Optional Subject consists 2! Or skip to the increase in population is that in near future, it is important for the women have... Among the females and bring down the birth rate is mainly responsible rapid. Free of charge, in countries like India, it is an increase of %. Just before world War II term here and press Enter year, and fertilizer plants and. The difference between the circumstances in today ’ s less-developed areas is higher than it was in Europe. Is about having enough resources to meet the needs of the people to square... Where you can type in a pyramid world population problems and policies upsc, the contrary is likely them be. Expected to be 1 286 956 392 people a quick tour of the decline in the population is day.

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